Jochi khan

1182-1227
He eldest son of Genghis Khan and Borte of the Kungirat tribe
He was buried in the Jochi mausoleum, in the Ulytau mountains.

Jochi. The eldest son of Genghis Khan and Borte of the Kungirat tribe. Jochi was born in 1182 or 1184. In 1206, Jochi received the ulus, his inheritance from his father Genghis Khan. In 1207, on the orders of his father, he went on a campaign against the forest peoples of Siberia. Among the submissive peoples were the Yenisei Kirghiz and Oirats.

In 1213, Jochi participated in his father's campaigns in Northern China against the Jin dynasty. Jochi, along with his two brothers, led one of the three groups of troops.

 Jochi and his troops began military operations South of the Taihang mountain range to the North of the bank of the Huang He river. Provinces and cities such as Luan, Huaqing, Pingyang, Fenzhou, and Taiyuan were devastated. In this company, Jochi proved to be a talented commander.

In 1217, the Yenisei Kirghiz revolted. Jochi marched against them and defeated them in 1218.

In 1219-1221, Jochi participated in the conquest of Central Asia. After the end of the war with Muhammad Khorezmshah in 1221, the eldest son of Genghis Khan, Jochi, opposed the Kipchaks. By 1223, Jochi had completed the conquest of the Eastern Kipchaks. According to some reports, Jochi even participated in the battle of Kalka, where troops led by Jebe and Subedei defeated the combined Russian-Kipchak army. Most of Kazakhstan in the 1220s became part of the Ulus of Jochi. Jochi's headquaters itself was located in Semirechye. After the conquest of Kazakhstan, Jochi began to live peacefully. The Muslim-Indian historian Juzjani wrote that when Jochi "saw the air and water of the Kypchak land, he found that in the whole world there can be no land more pleasant than this, the air is better than this, the water is sweeter than this, the meadows and pastures are wider than these." By the decree of Genghis Khan, the territory of Desht-I Kipchak was officially fixed by Jochi and his descendants. In addition, Genghis Khan promised Jochi and his children the conquest of the Russian principalities, the remaining Kipchaks, Bulgars, the Caucasus and other lands up to the "last sea".

Juzjani reported that Jochi, observing the actions of the army, once declared about "his father's recklessness in relation to land and people."

Of course, there were "good people" who brought these words to Genghis Khan. Also at the end of 1225, Genghis Khan fell ill and called his sons to him. Jochi replied that he was also very ill, but one of the eyewitnesses reported that Jochi was not ill, felt fine and was hunting in Central Kazakhstan. In the end, the fact that Jochi cheated his father and did not come to the Council made Genghis Khan even angrier. At the very beginning of 1227, Jochi died. He was buried in the Jochi mausoleum, which is located in Central Kazakhstan in Karaganda region of Kazakhstan 50 kilometers northeast of the city of Zhezkazgan in the Ulytau mountains.

Kazakhs have preserved one legend about Jochi, which is called Aksak-Kulan (lame Kulan). The first versions of the legend were recorded by the ancestors of the Kazakhs in the 15th century. According to a modern legend recorded in the 20th century, Jochi hunted wild kulans. He got too carried away and moved away from his companions. Jochi was able to kill many kulans when one of the kulans who was lame did not attack Jochi who was on a horse. Jochi did not expect this, fell off his horse and broke his neck. In the end, he died. Most of attendants were afraid to tell Genghis Khan about death. Genghis Khan began to smell something wrong and threatened that for bad news about his son, those who voiced it, he would pour lead down their throats. Of all attendants, there was only one brave man Ketbuka, who had the nickname Uly zhyrshy (the great performer of zhyrs). This Ketbuka was an old man in 1227 and descended from the naimans. According to the Kazakh Shezhire, this Ketbuka was the ancestor of a part of the modern Kazakh naimans.

Not wanting to die, Ketbuk decided to go to the trick and tell about her son's death in an indirect way. He made a dombra and came to an audience with Genghis Khan. Without saying anything to the Khan Ketbuk began to play the lute very sad melody - kui. In it, he tried to express all the events that happened to Jochi. When Ketbuk finished playing, everyone understood. Genghis Khan also understood. After a long silence, Genghis Khan, according to legend, said the following: "You brought me the sad news of my son's death. I understood everything from listening to your dombra. You deserve to die for your black message, but since you didn't say a word yourself, let your dombra be punished. Fill its throat with lead!" Since then, the dombra has a hole in it. Kui Aksak-Kulan has been preserved to this day and anyone can listen to it in the recording. In 1968, the Kazakhfilm film studio even released a cartoon based on this legend.